Top 10 Colleges with History and Law Programs in the United States

In this article, I would like to enumerate the highest ranked universities with history and law programs. The order in which they are presented illustrates their rankings, as well. Let’s proceed!

Yale University

Yale University is acknowledged as being one of the very best universities that provide law programs, in the world. One may choose from four degree-granting programs, namely the J.D. program – a three-year course, the LL. M. – a course of study designated for J.D. graduates who want to take up law teaching, the J.S.D. program – which is targeted for LL. M. graduates, and the M.S.L program.

Harvard University

Yearly, more than 1900 students go to Harvard Law School, which facilitates three distinct degree programs. The first one is the J.D., which lasts for three years, setting the foundation for legal study. Students with legal training and experience can opt for the one-year LL.M program, while the S.J.D. is for those who want to pursue a more advanced degree.

Stanford University

Stanford Law School is known worldwide for its dynamic JD program. Additionally, the university has created a unique learning environment, which is one of the things that make it a leading research university. Students can choose from the three one-year master’s degree programs, as well as a doctoral degree targeted for foreign graduate students who’ve earned their degree outside the US.

Columbia University

Moving on, Columbia University supplies the Juris Doctor (J. D.) program, which lasts for three years. Meanwhile, the LL.M. program is a full-time program, of one year, which allows students to specialize in distinct fields. Yearly, the university enrolls about 210 LL.M. students coming from 50 countries.

New York University

New York University is one of the first schools that admitted women, being a leader in the law field, among many other things. The Graduate Division provides both specialized and general master of laws programs, as well as Advanced Professional Certificates.

University of California Berkeley

Berkley Law facilitates outstanding education in emerging and established fields of law alike. That is not all, the university was one of the first that supported the green movement, by creating the first environmental law program. As a result, it comes as no surprise that it is one of the most selective universities based in the United States, choosing only 270 out of the total of 7,000 applicants.

University of Chicago

Recently, the University of Chicago Law School has reached its 100th anniversary. The typical curriculum of the Law School is available to candidates who have a Bachelor’s degree. Additionally, the class for the JD program is restricted to 190 students. There are also two graduate degrees at master’s level, namely the Master of Laws and Master of Comparative Law.

University of Pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania is definitely worth noting, as well, especially in the law field. There is a full-time program dedicated to applicants who wish to pursue the first professional degree in law, as well as the typical graduate degrees.

University of Michigan – Ann Arbor

The Law School from the University of Michigan supplies four graduate options, as well as the three-year Juris Doctor. The Law School takes on about 1100 students from the United States and abroad; nonetheless, the graduate degree programs are small, irrespective of the significantly high number of yearly applicants.

Duke University

The Duke University of Law allows students to pursue a dual-degree. These programs aim at introducing law graduates to the way in which the legal system functions in the US, whilst allowing students to pursue a successful career in law.

Now you know which are the top, highly ranked universities in the United States, which provide law and history programs. Of course, there are many other schools that are worth noting, this being a brief list only.

Comparative Politics With a Focus On Nation-States

Comparative politics should extensive cover nation-states due to the homogeneity of the nation states which typically composed of individuals who have a near similar language and cultural preferences. Homogeneity of such nations will ultimately lead to a discriminatory framework that will effectively ostracize the nation under consideration from the neighboring countries as well as the rest of the world in a political, social and economic sense. Consequently, comparative politics must sufficiently address the politics involved in the nation states, supranational, transnational, and sub-national political frameworks that dictate different countries of the world. Such an assertion is best served by theories that include globalization and Europeanization which stretch out the disputes that would erupt from having the nation-states outlook. The following assignment deliberates over the extent to which comparative politics should influence nation states with regards to supranational, transnational, and sub-national political phenomena. Conclusively, this essay will address make evidenced-based assumptions regarding the subject mentioned above using two democratic governments as evidence.


According to the theory of Europeanism, a typically non-European nation adopts certain features of the continent in question. The nation or region becomes European-like by making certain changes to its culture, language and national appeal to mimic that of European nations. The appeal of the European continents will draw the nations or regions to adopt what they perceive as superior government systems from the west thus the name westernization. While this approach might seem rational, the nations are susceptible to importing faulty systems from the west thus necessitating the need for comparative politics as a means of providing checks and balances for such nations or regions. The regions that utilize this practice stand the risk of making a homogenous nation that will ultimately face logistical and operational difficulties. The question that requires attention in this case is how much of comparative politics is necessary to regulate the vagaries that might arise from implementing such systems of governance.

Comparative politic must, therefore, take center stage in such cases where the nation states stand to lose its identity and sovereignty in pursuit of seemingly positive European traits. Naturally, every country or nation is unique in its nature thus no tow countries should look alike. The diversity in the number of countries on the planet plays a key role in the amount of harmony and disharmony present in the international platform. Europeanism is likely to descend from single nations mimicking other seemingly superior nations and into a single entity of congruent systems of governance. The countries that mimic other European nations are likely to give up their sovereignty in exchange for the advantages that come with adopting seemingly superior European government systems.

In light of this, it is important to use comparative politics to put into context every change that occurs in the government system. Using comparatives allows governance instruments to prevent the parent states from having a similar status to supranational entities. Europeanism extrapolates the point that the European country that serves as the blueprint for other countries o copy could possibly influence the affairs of other nations indirectly. Essentially, having such powers within its grasp does not augur well for the affairs of the rest of the countries. Considering the United Kingdom, countries that model its political nature against that of the British are likely to face similar challenges to those of the British nation. Consequently, any political issues that face the UK are likely to spill over to the other country thus indirectly affecting the sovereignty of that country. Britain might decide to adopt strict immigration laws that affect how the handle international flow of non-British residents. The same laws are obviously not applicable in other countries that base their governance on democracy, those countries that adopt the system of governance will eventually face issues with such a law should they implement it fully and blindly.

Britain is a first world country, this means it is further developed in terms of its infrastructure, economy and political states. The problems facing Britain might not necessarily transition to those facing a third world nation that adopts the seemingly perfect system of governance in Britain. Using comparative politics enables those particular countries t review the kind of features they adopt from Britain in order to safeguard their sovereignty. Retrospective and in-depth review will prevent Britain from gaining powers that transcend national boundaries of government otherwise known as supranational. On the same note, comparative politics would effectively curb the emergence of transnational governments. Transnational politics refers to political undertakings that transcend international boundaries; such politics would adversely affect the individualistic nature of the numerous numbers of countries as they merge their interests. Merging their interests brings forth another concern or governance and politics in the form of globalization which is discussed below.


As a phenomenon, globalization practically involves integrating the nations and people of the world in a political, economic and cultural sense into a singular and congruent large community. Globalization essentially breaks down cultural, political and other physical boundaries in an attempt to make a single platform for the rest of the world to operate on without much respect to the individualism of the countries. Globalization primarily bases its foundation of the technological advancements and progress in civilization which tentatively link every single government and culture to the rest of the world. Globalization dissolved barriers of time and distance by enhancing the flow of information which in turn promoted greater awareness and understanding among its propagators. Despite the seemingly positive steps made by globalization, those features do not seamlessly transition to the system of governance. If anything, globalization transfers one countries problem to the neighboring and related countries by virtue of interconnecting countries.

A proper example of a single nation problem becoming a global issue is directly represented by the security issues facing the United States of America. The US faced terrorism occurrences on its soil in recent years, the occurrences of such acts led to several military responses that sought to pursue the perpetrators and bring them to justice. Countries that seemingly sided with the United States faced similar threats and actual occurrences by virtue of their association with the United States of America. Globalization is not only responsible for security issues but it also leads economic and social dislocations which inherently creates concerns over the distribution of economic gains, public concerns over job security and the impact of volatility on families, communities, and nations. Similar to the concerns created by Europeanism, globalization also brings forth several concerns which would arise from countries coming together throughout the globe to conform to a single identifiable entity.

Considering the impact globalization would continue to have on the affairs of the world, more and more countries are likely to fall into this trap both knowingly and unknowingly. The mistakes committed will happen as the countries continue to model their affairs and politics against that of the western culture specifically those in Britain and the United States of America.  The rest of the countries might face such challenges through their direct association with the western world which appears to have near flawless political outlooks. The best approach towards mitigating such adverse challenges would entail extensive usage of comparative politics that transcends supranational, transnational and sub-national political boundaries. The severity of this intervention should exclusively lie on the impact of Europeanism and Globalization among other theories that dictate the evolution of civilization through modernization. The above assertions base its validity on the success such an approach would have when applied to nation-state entities that typically have homogenous citizens.


In conclusion, comparative politics is the most reliable tool to curb the adverse effects of external forces that expose governments to Europeanism, globalization, Marketization and the likes which would ultimately expose them. Comparative politics would effectively curtail their progress by ensuring that nations all over the world remain exclusive in their dealings or affairs. Through effectively scrutinizing the occurrences in the right context will allow room for effective decision making which would also determine the general trajectory of specific states as they pursue growth and development. Based on the arguments made in this essay, it is recommendable to extensively use comparative politics to realize certain goals for each country that faces the external forces mentioned in the essay above.


Homework Answers

Q1. P6

So there are examples of homework tasks. First answer is… The rate at which the citizens of the United States of America are engaged in political issues has seen a great increase compared to what happened in previous years. Americans have embraced different platforms to ensure that their political voices are heard through expressing their opinions in public forums like blogs, media and social networking sites. This contrasts to previous years where the political arena was only left to the elite members of the society with the rest of the populace only left to express their views through voting.

The internet can be used as a tool of increasing the extents of political participation among Americans. This is attributed to its high interactive capacity which allow for conducting multiple political activities like blogging and access to political information. A part from this, political debates in media like social networks, radio stations and television programs can aid in stirring public engagement.

Q.2 P16

Deliberation in good faith means putting the common interests of a group into consideration with the aim of reaching a collective solution. While it does not call for complete objectivity, deliberation in good faith embraces democracy. In this case, an individual may be passionate of their political stands but still deliberate in good faith with the guidance of the principles of democracy.

Q.3 P17

Responsible citizen speakers must embrace honesty and truth in their speech. This brings out the fact that they are genuinely considerate of their listeners’ wellbeing. A part from this, responsible citizen speakers uphold respectful dialogue through considering the rights of their listeners by considering their interests. It is the role of responsible citizen speakers to respect their audiences’ diversity putting into consideration factor like age, gender and societal beliefs.

Public speaking in a democracy is bound to legal and ethical considerations.  Ethical considerations include talking responsibly while examining one’s motives and accuracy in their acquisition and presentation of information. Legally, public speakers are bound to the responsibilities that revolve around the rights and freedoms of speech.

Q.4 P17

Some of the significant ethical concerns of public speaking in a democracy include examination of motives, being bound to the moral concerns of the group being addressed and consideration of social distribution of the audience. Therefore, speaking ethically means getting the desired points across an audience in honestly; without exploiting or manipulating the people being addressed.

Q.5 P35

Some of the barriers to effective listening include prejudice, preconceived ideas and possession of closed minds. I have experienced such barriers in public speaking forums. However, I have endeavored to curb them in a number of ways. Embracing all speakers with little regard of their social statuses, religion, gender and accent has helped me tackle prejudice. Embracing the spirit of being open minded to other people’s ideas even when I don’t agree has helped me curb preconceived ideas.  Open mindedness has helped me appreciate the fact that other people can think about something in different ways. This has assisted me in eliminating a closed mindset about different aspects of life.

Q.6 P38

Being a critical listener means having the ability of getting what other people say with a lot of seriousness and attention. To achieve this, one must be prepared to listen and contribute to the ideas of the speaker.

Q.7 P.54

Some of the factors contributing to a speaker’s anxiety include poor planning, negative self-talk and inadequate socializing. In one instance, my mind went blank due to inadequate speech planning. To tackle this issue, I took some time to engage with the audience while recalling the necessary points.

Q.8 P60

I have embraced positive thinking and socialization as strategies of increasing my speaking confidence. Positive thinking has helped me influence my audience towards being attentive through encouragements.  Socialization has given me the experience of interacting with people. This has helped me do away with social fears.

Q.9 P69

To explore significant topics of public concern, I have developed the habit of looking into the most discussed issues on social media platforms like Facebook and twitter. I attribute this to the fact that these are the most widely used social platforms all over the world. Further, Facebook and twitter are not bound to age limitations and give room for people from all walks of life to express themselves.

Q.10 P97

Public speaking is for different purposes.  First, it is meant to persuade the audience towards a certain social course. For instance, politicians may take advantage of public speaking to persuade the electorate to vote in their favor. Second, it may be used for ceremonial functions in which people are honored for their achievements. Lastly, public speaking plays the role of informing audiences in different scenarios. For instance, a nutritionist may take advantage of such an avenue to inform his audience on the advantages of healthy feeding.

Q.11 P101

Specific purpose refers to the underlying reasons for delivery of a speech to the audience of target. Every public speaker needs to have a specific purpose because of the role it plays in guiding how the speech will be delivered while aiding in the elimination of conflicts of interest. As a public speaker, I have made use of guiding points to evaluate my specific purpose. A single speech may have multiple purposes depending on the topic being tackled and the audience. For instance, a person speaking on the importance of elections could also incorporate issues of peace in the same speech.

Q.12 P103

A thesis statement is a declarative clause that wraps up the topic of speech. It acts as the back bone of the speech. A speaker must develop a thesis statement as a way of ensuring that he remains relevant and within the topics and objectives of discussion.

Modification Of Transient Treatment Approaches Closer To What Is Suspected as Our Ideal Goal, A One-Step, Permanent “Cure”

Can you discuss, for any one of the 4 transient treatment approaches, how you might modify the treatment protocol to come closer to what I suspect is our ideal goal, a one-step, permanent “cure”?

To address some of the key challenges among patients with congenital muscular dystrophy type Ullrich with an aim of developing temporary treatment approaches, doctors need to appreciate complication that characterizes the life experience of the patients. In reference to  Bolduc paper and Shen’s publications, I have highlighted these challenges that are key in defining the modifications of treatment protocols.

First, living with a genetic disease means a lifetime experience of treatment and medical attention, an experience that mostly characterizes the lives of patients with congenital muscular dystrophy type Ullrich (UCMD).  The condition is common among children in their early childhood stages and is characterized by severe disorders that arise from weakened muscles.   Bolduc paper appreciates that the condition does not have permanent treatments, a position that poses a significant challenge to the health of the patients.

Another equally great concern among the patients is the financial obligation that is associated with management of the life long condition. UCMD  is also significant reliant on the use of respiratory support systems especially during night-times, and in severe cases, the continuous subjection to Mechanically supported ventilation may expose the patient to ventilator acquired pneumonia (VAP) among their related cases. VAP is a condition that is common among patient in the Intensive care Unit (ICU) with mechanically supported ventilation and is commonly associated with poor oral hygiene.  Shen appreciates that VAP increases mortality among children.

Recurrent lower respiratory tract infections are one of the most common experiences that are common among patient with weakened immune systems. The weakened muscular activity that, in server cases, necessitates mechanical ventilation support that exposes the child to respiratory tract infection that is best-averted form a stable immune system.

Transient treatment approaches of treatment modifications

Bolduc publication on health appreciates that research on Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy has been advanced to address some of the key challenges facing the patient especially the lifetime management of the condition.

  1. The leading concern among researchers is the management of the condition and ensuring that the patient experience an average healthy lifestyle. Some measures like surgery have since been recommended for cases like contractures and scoliosis. Bolduc paper acknowledges that some patients suffering from Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy significantly benefit from cyclosporin A.
  2. Administration of antibiotics manages the respiratory tract related condition that builds up to VAP in ICUs. Gastronomy is also a technique that has also been recommended.
  3. The various health insurance institutions have been advised for patients. Bolduc paper earlier indicated the enormous financial burden associated with chronic diseases highlighting the need for proper measures to mitigate the financial inconvenience of the condition.
  4. Maintenance of optimum oral hygiene is also a measure that has been emphasized. Oral health, including the use of tooth, brushed as well as appropriate chemicals, aid in preventing the onset of VAP among patients under mechanical ventilation.
  5. Other recommended measures of managing mechanically ventilated patients suffering from severe cases of Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy includes prevention of gastric relaxes, proper equipment maintenance, avoiding cross contamination and proper air way management.

Dog Whistle Politics

The development of any country in the world to a great extent depends on the political ideologies embraced by the ruling party or government. With clearly stated and detailed manifestos from the sitting government, the country will encounter tremendous growth accompanied with infrastructural expansion as well as realize the millennial development goals. After every five years, the United States holds general elections where the president and a new regime is bestowed power by the public to lead the country to the next level of development. However, one feature that has marked most of the American general election campaigns is the occasional use of hidden statements that are pleasing to a particular group or society by politicians to win their votes and trust.

The use of dog whistle politics began as early as 1964 witnessing the polarization of the major political parties. During the campaign, most famous American politicians in history have used what Mr. Lopez refers to as a dog whistle policy. Politicians in the US have over the years used dog whistle politics to win the backing of the middle-class. They claim to support certain reforms in the society trying to show they want the best for a given section of the community mostly supporting racist reforms. In America, two major political parties battle in the general elections; the Conservatives and Democrats. During the general election, every aspirant going for various political positions use ideologies that are likely to win them the support of the majority white working class. The use of dog whistle politics in American elections and campaigns have brought divisions among the black minority voters and the majority whites.

Studies have revealed that politicians will do what it takes to win the elections even if it means touching on most sensitive issues in the economy that may be pleasing to the public. Some of these matters politicians in the US have used in a bid to win the white working-class votes include a stop to immigration, supporting racism as well as a war against the Islamic religion. One reason why these claims have received attention among the white middle class is that there is a section of citizens who are extremely racists and are comfortable supporting such policies and ideologies. Additionally, the department of police as done little to stop the use of such immortal words against certain groups of citizens who they are to protect against all kinds of violation.

Consequently, it is evident that using dog whistle politics among political aspirants is a good strategy to winning the elections and persuading the majority of the white middle-class voters. According to Mr. Lopez the application of the dog whistle politics is not a new thing and every aspirant either from the Democrats, Labour or Conservative will use it to gain prominence among the voters. He adds that these political demagogues supported by the wealthier individuals in the society use racial, immigration and anti-Muslimism appeals to manipulate white working-class to win their support in return wrecking them (Wilby, 09).

Moreover, using this calls to gain the support for restrictive policies that will benefit the corporations and their super-rich friends and in the course economically kill the middle class. Mr. Lopez argument is in support of various pieces of literature that white Americans have held negative perception and views against their counterparts for a very long time. Consequently, politicians have ventured in these racial prejudgments which hold a great significance on predicting many opinions on various issues touching on politics. Or even better as Desmond King and Rogers Smith brings it out in their research regarding the American politics: “On occasions that encompass a broad range of basic structure of American life, nearly all the same players are likely to line up on the same side. Or the opposite side outlined by the support for or against race-conscious strategies and ideologies meant to improve racial discriminations based on materials.” (TerBeek, 168).

These formal political policies have ruined the lives of the middle-class population of Americans. Nonetheless, if an individual digs deeper into Mr. Lopez argument, they will realize the statement cannot carry all the weight that he claims. For instance, it is clear that probably a dog whistle politics has provided politicians with a new way to talk on matters regarding race, immigration as well as anti-Muslim aggressive policies; however, it has not “intoxicated” the white working-class. Furthermore, Mr. Lopez argument did not attempt to understand the verdict of the Supreme Court regarding the racial conservatism in the American politics.

However, the decision made by the Supreme Court does not obviate the interest of engaging in Mr. Lopez argument. In his case, Lopez makes one important discovery about the American politics and elections. As a result, the policy of race plays a significant role in the US contemporary politics. For instance, when one political party has racial homogeneity like the current Republican Party with approximately 88 percent whites who voted Mitt Romney, then surely race plays a significant role in the politics of America. Furthermore, Jack Balkin noted recently how the two principal political parties have remained polarized in the recent years unlike the era of Civil War. Then one can conclude that Mr. Lopez may have identified one of the factors that play the American politics- dog whistle over the last few years.

Even though most readers will have noticed Mr. Lopez’s thesis mainly talks about politicians; nonetheless, the Supreme Court as well has a significant role in this story. But Lopez’s assessment of the argument concerning the court is broad. As a result, if this thesis is to come out clear there is need to embrace the actions of the Supreme Court as a political actor as well as a central player in all the undertakings of the country’s politics. In this perspective, we look at what the Supreme Court has done to support the policies of racial conservatives in playing the dog whistle politics. When assessing Mr. Lopez thesis, we consider George Wallace political gamble. Though, 1964 marks the era when the modern political parties became identifiable through the race. Some political scientists have evidently revealed the presidential elections is an opinionated cleavage point of the present modern era racial politics in the US.

In conclusion, dog whistle politics has significantly impacted on the lives of the ordinary citizen while empowering the few rich guys in the economy. A good example is the 2017 general election that was characterizable with stringent racial policies by Donald Trump’s policies of racial and anti-Muslims prejudice move in America (Eaton, 23). Though the Americans were not in full support of Trump’s election as the next president of the United States, he won because he convinced the middle-class that he would deport all blacks. Consequently, the racists voted him in as the next presidential elections.