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Homework Answers

Q1. P6

Homework. The rate at which the citizens of the United States of America are engaged in political issues has seen a great increase compared to what happened in previous years. Americans have embraced different platforms to ensure that their political voices are heard through expressing their opinions in public forums like blogs, media and social networking sites. This contrasts to previous years where the political arena was only left to the elite members of the society with the rest of the populace only left to express their views through voting.

The internet can be used as a tool of increasing the extents of political participation among Americans. This is attributed to its high interactive capacity which allow for conducting multiple political activities like blogging and access to political information. A part from this, political debates in media like social networks, radio stations and television programs can aid in stirring public engagement.

Q.2 P16

Deliberation in good faith means putting the common interests of a group into consideration with the aim of reaching a collective solution. While it does not call for complete objectivity, deliberation in good faith embraces democracy. In this case, an individual may be passionate of their political stands but still deliberate in good faith with the guidance of the principles of democracy.

Q.3 P17

Responsible citizen speakers must embrace honesty and truth in their speech. This brings out the fact that they are genuinely considerate of their listeners’ wellbeing. A part from this, responsible citizen speakers uphold respectful dialogue through considering the rights of their listeners by considering their interests. It is the role of responsible citizen speakers to respect their audiences’ diversity putting into consideration factor like age, gender and societal beliefs.

Public speaking in a democracy is bound to legal and ethical considerations.  Ethical considerations include talking responsibly while examining one’s motives and accuracy in their acquisition and presentation of information. Legally, public speakers are bound to the responsibilities that revolve around the rights and freedoms of speech.

Q.4 P17

Some of the significant ethical concerns of public speaking in a democracy include examination of motives, being bound to the moral concerns of the group being addressed and consideration of social distribution of the audience. Therefore, speaking ethically means getting the desired points across an audience in honestly; without exploiting or manipulating the people being addressed.

Q.5 P35

Some of the barriers to effective listening include prejudice, preconceived ideas and possession of closed minds. I have experienced such barriers in public speaking forums. However, I have endeavored to curb them in a number of ways. Embracing all speakers with little regard of their social statuses, religion, gender and accent has helped me tackle prejudice. Embracing the spirit of being open minded to other people’s ideas even when I don’t agree has helped me curb preconceived ideas.  Open mindedness has helped me appreciate the fact that other people can think about something in different ways. This has assisted me in eliminating a closed mindset about different aspects of life.

Q.6 P38

Being a critical listener means having the ability of getting what other people say with a lot of seriousness and attention. To achieve this, one must be prepared to listen and contribute to the ideas of the speaker.

Q.7 P.54

Some of the factors contributing to a speaker’s anxiety include poor planning, negative self-talk and inadequate socializing. In one instance, my mind went blank due to inadequate speech planning. To tackle this issue, I took some time to engage with the audience while recalling the necessary points.

Q.8 P60

I have embraced positive thinking and socialization as strategies of increasing my speaking confidence. Positive thinking has helped me influence my audience towards being attentive through encouragements.  Socialization has given me the experience of interacting with people. This has helped me do away with social fears.

Q.9 P69

To explore significant topics of public concern, I have developed the habit of looking into the most discussed issues on social media platforms like Facebook and twitter. I attribute this to the fact that these are the most widely used social platforms all over the world. Further, Facebook and twitter are not bound to age limitations and give room for people from all walks of life to express themselves.

Q.10 P97

Public speaking is for different purposes.  First, it is meant to persuade the audience towards a certain social course. For instance, politicians may take advantage of public speaking to persuade the electorate to vote in their favor. Second, it may be used for ceremonial functions in which people are honored for their achievements. Lastly, public speaking plays the role of informing audiences in different scenarios. For instance, a nutritionist may take advantage of such an avenue to inform his audience on the advantages of healthy feeding.

Q.11 P101

Specific purpose refers to the underlying reasons for delivery of a speech to the audience of target. Every public speaker needs to have a specific purpose because of the role it plays in guiding how the speech will be delivered while aiding in the elimination of conflicts of interest. As a public speaker, I have made use of guiding points to evaluate my specific purpose. A single speech may have multiple purposes depending on the topic being tackled and the audience. For instance, a person speaking on the importance of elections could also incorporate issues of peace in the same speech.

Q.12 P103

A thesis statement is a declarative clause that wraps up the topic of speech. It acts as the back bone of the speech. A speaker must develop a thesis statement as a way of ensuring that he remains relevant and within the topics and objectives of discussion.

Modification Of Transient Treatment Approaches Closer To What Is Suspected as Our Ideal Goal, A One-Step, Permanent “Cure”

Can you discuss, for any one of the 4 transient treatment approaches, how you might modify the treatment protocol to come closer to what I suspect is our ideal goal, a one-step, permanent “cure”?

To address some of the key challenges among patients with congenital muscular dystrophy type Ullrich with an aim of developing temporary treatment approaches, doctors need to appreciate complication that characterizes the life experience of the patients. In reference to  Bolduc paper and Shen’s publications, I have highlighted these challenges that are key in defining the modifications of treatment protocols.

First, living with a genetic disease means a lifetime experience of treatment and medical attention, an experience that mostly characterizes the lives of patients with congenital muscular dystrophy type Ullrich (UCMD).  The condition is common among children in their early childhood stages and is characterized by severe disorders that arise from weakened muscles.   Bolduc paper appreciates that the condition does not have permanent treatments, a position that poses a significant challenge to the health of the patients.

Another equally great concern among the patients is the financial obligation that is associated with management of the life long condition. UCMD  is also significant reliant on the use of respiratory support systems especially during night-times, and in severe cases, the continuous subjection to Mechanically supported ventilation may expose the patient to ventilator acquired pneumonia (VAP) among their related cases. VAP is a condition that is common among patient in the Intensive care Unit (ICU) with mechanically supported ventilation and is commonly associated with poor oral hygiene.  Shen appreciates that VAP increases mortality among children.

Recurrent lower respiratory tract infections are one of the most common experiences that are common among patient with weakened immune systems. The weakened muscular activity that, in server cases, necessitates mechanical ventilation support that exposes the child to respiratory tract infection that is best-averted form a stable immune system.

Transient treatment approaches of treatment modifications

Bolduc publication on health appreciates that research on Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy has been advanced to address some of the key challenges facing the patient especially the lifetime management of the condition.

  1. The leading concern among researchers is the management of the condition and ensuring that the patient experience an average healthy lifestyle. Some measures like surgery have since been recommended for cases like contractures and scoliosis. Bolduc paper acknowledges that some patients suffering from Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy significantly benefit from cyclosporin A.
  2. Administration of antibiotics manages the respiratory tract related condition that builds up to VAP in ICUs. Gastronomy is also a technique that has also been recommended.
  3. The various health insurance institutions have been advised for patients. Bolduc paper earlier indicated the enormous financial burden associated with chronic diseases highlighting the need for proper measures to mitigate the financial inconvenience of the condition.
  4. Maintenance of optimum oral hygiene is also a measure that has been emphasized. Oral health, including the use of tooth, brushed as well as appropriate chemicals, aid in preventing the onset of VAP among patients under mechanical ventilation.
  5. Other recommended measures of managing mechanically ventilated patients suffering from severe cases of Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy includes prevention of gastric relaxes, proper equipment maintenance, avoiding cross contamination and proper air way management.

Dog Whistle Politics

The development of any country in the world to a great extent depends on the political ideologies embraced by the ruling party or government. With clearly stated and detailed manifestos from the sitting government, the country will encounter tremendous growth accompanied with infrastructural expansion as well as realize the millennial development goals. After every five years, the United States holds general elections where the president and a new regime is bestowed power by the public to lead the country to the next level of development. However, one feature that has marked most of the American general election campaigns is the occasional use of hidden statements that are pleasing to a particular group or society by politicians to win their votes and trust.

The use of dog whistle politics began as early as 1964 witnessing the polarization of the major political parties. During the campaign, most famous American politicians in history have used what Mr. Lopez refers to as a dog whistle policy. Politicians in the US have over the years used dog whistle politics to win the backing of the middle-class. They claim to support certain reforms in the society trying to show they want the best for a given section of the community mostly supporting racist reforms. In America, two major political parties battle in the general elections; the Conservatives and Democrats. During the general election, every aspirant going for various political positions use ideologies that are likely to win them the support of the majority white working class. The use of dog whistle politics in American elections and campaigns have brought divisions among the black minority voters and the majority whites.

Studies have revealed that politicians will do what it takes to win the elections even if it means touching on most sensitive issues in the economy that may be pleasing to the public. Some of these matters politicians in the US have used in a bid to win the white working-class votes include a stop to immigration, supporting racism as well as a war against the Islamic religion. One reason why these claims have received attention among the white middle class is that there is a section of citizens who are extremely racists and are comfortable supporting such policies and ideologies. Additionally, the department of police as done little to stop the use of such immortal words against certain groups of citizens who they are to protect against all kinds of violation.

Consequently, it is evident that using dog whistle politics among political aspirants is a good strategy to winning the elections and persuading the majority of the white middle-class voters. According to Mr. Lopez the application of the dog whistle politics is not a new thing and every aspirant either from the Democrats, Labour or Conservative will use it to gain prominence among the voters. He adds that these political demagogues supported by the wealthier individuals in the society use racial, immigration and anti-Muslimism appeals to manipulate white working-class to win their support in return wrecking them (Wilby, 09).

Moreover, using this calls to gain the support for restrictive policies that will benefit the corporations and their super-rich friends and in the course economically kill the middle class. Mr. Lopez argument is in support of various pieces of literature that white Americans have held negative perception and views against their counterparts for a very long time. Consequently, politicians have ventured in these racial prejudgments which hold a great significance on predicting many opinions on various issues touching on politics. Or even better as Desmond King and Rogers Smith brings it out in their research regarding the American politics: “On occasions that encompass a broad range of basic structure of American life, nearly all the same players are likely to line up on the same side. Or the opposite side outlined by the support for or against race-conscious strategies and ideologies meant to improve racial discriminations based on materials.” (TerBeek, 168).

These formal political policies have ruined the lives of the middle-class population of Americans. Nonetheless, if an individual digs deeper into Mr. Lopez argument, they will realize the statement cannot carry all the weight that he claims. For instance, it is clear that probably a dog whistle politics has provided politicians with a new way to talk on matters regarding race, immigration as well as anti-Muslim aggressive policies; however, it has not “intoxicated” the white working-class. Furthermore, Mr. Lopez argument did not attempt to understand the verdict of the Supreme Court regarding the racial conservatism in the American politics.

However, the decision made by the Supreme Court does not obviate the interest of engaging in Mr. Lopez argument. In his case, Lopez makes one important discovery about the American politics and elections. As a result, the policy of race plays a significant role in the US contemporary politics. For instance, when one political party has racial homogeneity like the current Republican Party with approximately 88 percent whites who voted Mitt Romney, then surely race plays a significant role in the politics of America. Furthermore, Jack Balkin noted recently how the two principal political parties have remained polarized in the recent years unlike the era of Civil War. Then one can conclude that Mr. Lopez may have identified one of the factors that play the American politics- dog whistle over the last few years.

Even though most readers will have noticed Mr. Lopez’s thesis mainly talks about politicians; nonetheless, the Supreme Court as well has a significant role in this story. But Lopez’s assessment of the argument concerning the court is broad. As a result, if this thesis is to come out clear there is need to embrace the actions of the Supreme Court as a political actor as well as a central player in all the undertakings of the country’s politics. In this perspective, we look at what the Supreme Court has done to support the policies of racial conservatives in playing the dog whistle politics. When assessing Mr. Lopez thesis, we consider George Wallace political gamble. Though, 1964 marks the era when the modern political parties became identifiable through the race. Some political scientists have evidently revealed the presidential elections is an opinionated cleavage point of the present modern era racial politics in the US.

In conclusion, dog whistle politics has significantly impacted on the lives of the ordinary citizen while empowering the few rich guys in the economy. A good example is the 2017 general election that was characterizable with stringent racial policies by Donald Trump’s policies of racial and anti-Muslims prejudice move in America (Eaton, 23). Though the Americans were not in full support of Trump’s election as the next president of the United States, he won because he convinced the middle-class that he would deport all blacks. Consequently, the racists voted him in as the next presidential elections.